Dermatology Handbook

The professional's guide to product selection

Systemic eczema treatments

Abrocitinib (Cibinqo)

The biologic abrocitinib is a janus kinase (JAK)1 inhibitor. JAKs are intracellular enzymes which transmit signals arising from cytokine or growth factor-receptor interactions on the cellular membrane to influence cellular processes of haematopoiesis and immune cell function. JAKs phosphorylate and activate Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) which modulate intracellular activity including gene expression. Inhibition of JAK1 modulates the signalling pathways by preventing the phosphorylation and activation of STATs.

Alitretinoin (Toctino)

Contains a retinoid alitretinoin. The pharmacological action of retinoids may be explained by their effects on cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, keratinisation, sebum secretion and immunomodulation. Unlike other retinoids, which are specific agonists of either RAR or RXR receptors, alitretinoin binds to members of both receptor families. The mechanism of action of alitretinoin in chronic hand eczema is unknown. Alitretinoin has demonstrated immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that are relevant to skin inflammation

Baricitinib (Olumiant)

Baricitinib is a selective and reversible inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK)1 and JAK2. In isolated enzyme assays, baricitinib inhibited the activities of JAK1, JAK2, Tyrosine Kinase 2 and JAK3 with IC50 values of 5.9, 5.7, 53 and > 400 nM, respectively. Janus kinases (JAKs) are enzymes that transduce intracellular signals from cell surface receptors for a number of cytokines and growth factors involved in haematopoiesis, inflammation and immune function. Within the intracellular signalling pathway, JAKs phosphorylate and activate signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), which activate gene expression within the cell. Baricitinib modulates these signalling pathways by partially inhibiting JAK1 and JAK2 enzymatic activity, thereby reducing the phosphorylation and activation of STATs.

Dupilumab (Dupixent)

Dupilumab is a biologic fully human monoclonal antibody against interleukin (IL)-4 receptor alpha that inhibits IL-4/IL-13 signalling, produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by recombinant DNA technology.

Lebrikizumab (Ebglyss)

A subcutaneous injection of the monoclonal antibody lebrikizumab for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis.

Tralokinumab (Adtralza)

Tralokinumab is a biologic monoclonal antibody that targets specific proteins or receptors in the body, to regulate the immune response or interfere with disease processes. The liquid solution is injected subcutaneously with a pre-filled syringe to limit the overreaction of the immune system, dampening down inflammation and reducing itch.

Upadacitinib (Rinvoq)

Rinvoq (upadacitinib) is a selective and reversible Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor. JAKs are intracellular enzymes that transmit cytokine or growth factor signals involved in a broad range of cellular processes including inflammatory responses, hematopoiesis, and immune surveillance. The JAK family of enzymes contains four members, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2 which work in pairs to phosphorylate and activate signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). This phosphorylation, in turn, modulates gene expression and cellular function. JAK1 is important in inflammatory cytokine signals while JAK2 is important for red blood cell maturation and JAK3 signals play a role in immune surveillance and lymphocyte function.