Dermatology Handbook

The professional's guide to product selection


Abrocitinib (Cibinqo)

The biologic abrocitinib is a janus kinase (JAK)1 inhibitor. JAKs are intracellular enzymes which transmit signals arising from cytokine or growth factor-receptor interactions on the cellular membrane to influence cellular processes of haematopoiesis and immune cell function. JAKs phosphorylate and activate Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) which modulate intracellular activity including gene expression. Inhibition of JAK1 modulates the signalling pathways by preventing the phosphorylation and activation of STATs.



Water-based gel containing 0.75% w/w of the active ingredient metronidazole, an antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent used to control infection and inflammation in skin problems.

Acitretin (Neotigason)

Acitretin is a retinoid. Retinol (Vitamin A) is known to be essential for normal epithelial growth and differentiation, though the mode of this effect is not yet established. Both retinol and retinoic acid are capable of reversing hyperkeratotic and metaplastic skin changes. However, these effects are generally only obtained at dosages associated with considerable local or systemic toxicity. Acitretin, a synthetic aromatic derivative of retinoic acid, has a favourable therapeutic ratio, with a greater and more specific inhibitory effect on psoriasis and disorders of epithelial keratinisation. The usual therapeutic response to acitretin consists of desquamation (with or without erythema) followed by more normal re-epithelialisation. Acitretin is the main active metabolite of etretinate.


Acnecide is a 5% preparation of benzoyl peroxide, which is an established and effective keratolytic agent with antibacterial properties. It has been shown to be effective in reducing the local population of Propionibacterium acnes, leading to a reduction in the production of irritant fatty acids in the sebaceous glands

Adalimumab (Humira)

Adalimumab binds specifically to TNF and neutralises the biological function of TNF by blocking its interaction with the p55 and p75 cell surface TNF receptors. Adalimumab also modulates biological responses that are induced or regulated by TNF, including changes in the levels of adhesion molecules responsible for leukocyte migration (ELAM-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 with an IC50 of 0.1-0.2 nM).